Henry also needed to control the nobility because if he didn’t, or only managed to control a minority, he could have a revolution, and Nobles, together, had a lot more money and power than the king himself. Firstly he gave the Earl of Surrey his lands back, bits at a time to ensure his loyalty, while having him as a key figurehead in the north to stop rebellions, since the north largely supported Richard and Henry needed to find a way of controlling them. Also Henry didn’t get rid of all the Yorkist nobles in the council, only those who thought against him. He did this so that he wouldn’t have a full scale Yorkist rebellion on his hands, but he couldn’t have people who wanted him dead and had fought against him on his council. As well as this, Henry needed to be effective at getting England onto a secure financial footing.
The cause of the English civil war The title ‘The cause of the English civil war’ means, what happened to make the civil war start. A civil war is when a country fights against itself with different beliefs. In 1625 King James died and Charles I came to the throne. James had strongly believed in the divine right of kings he had thought that monarchs got their power and the right to rule from God and that because of this they must be obeyed, the people of England were not very happy with this because it meant that the king could do whatever he wanted and claim that God had told him to. England for a long time had been told to hate Catholics and when James came from Scotland and became king he decided to marry Henrietta Maria, a Catholic, the people became unhappy because they did not know if their heir would be Protestant or Catholic.
Henry had spent a lot of money on wars in Europe, expensive clothes and food so he wanted to make up the loss by being head of the church. This meant Henry would have more money for himself. Finally, Henry made himself head of the English Church because he knew that previous kings had been unhappy with the amount of power the Pope had over the English church so he decided he wanted complete control over his country. Henry wanted power to divorce without the Pope's consent and in general Henry wanted more power over England's land. Henry wanted a divorce from Catherine of Aragon because she could not produce a son.
The Lutheran Princes felt it necessary to create the Protestant Union and in retaliation the Catholics formed to Catholic League. They agreed that neither of them should make a religious or territorial move. Protestant Churches were closed my Ferdinand of Styria, which caused the first outbreak of violence in 1617. Europe began to struggle through inflation. This was because the war had been fought on German soil, causing them to lose money in agriculture; also the trade routes had shifted.
Bismarck did not help to make the Catholics feel welcome in the Confederation. Pope Pius IX that the Church was slowly losing its traditional power, so he announced that any statement he made was to be accepted everywhere by Catholics, therefore German bishops would have to obey. Bismarck similarly wanted his new government to be obeyed. The Centre party (Catholic party) began to win more seats in the Reichstag, causing concern for Bismarck as there loyalty may be to the Pope. Bismarck began to fight back, he banned the most active order of Catholic priests and introduced a law that the government had a right to inspect all schools, including Catholic ones.
The support from the catholic church and the traditional elites was a very important reason that Mussolini was able to consolidate his power in 1922-1924 because both of these groups of people had a very large influence on the people of Italy at the time. However, I think that the actions of the current king; Victor Emmanuel III, was a far greater reason for Mussolini’s success because he was the only one who could’ve thrown Mussolini out of power but he didn’t. Unless he did something, Mussolini’s opponent’s options were very limited. The Catholic Church and the Elites were very important for Mussolini to establish a dictatorship. To gain power, Mussolini had to gain support from as many people as he could, he realised that people listened, and followed the church.
King Henry VIII of England was at first opposed to Luther’s ideas, but when he broke with the Roman Catholic Church in the 1530s, he supported Protestantism. When he died and his daughter Mary took over the throne in 1553, she persecuted many Protestants trying to restore England to Catholicism because she was a devout Catholic, (John H. Ratliff, page 4). In 1558 Elizabeth I succeeded Mary restoring order to England. Elizabeth being a Protestant queen only intensified problems with Spain. This lead to problems between Catholic Spain and
I am a devout Calvinist and the king is Roman Catholic, and as such holds strong anti-Protestant views. Because Protestants’ beliefs do not follow the king’s beliefs, King Louis XIV has decided to wage war on anyone that is not Roman Catholic. My arrest was nothing out of the ordinary; many other noble French citizens have met the same fate as I and many more after me as well. I was detained using a “lettre de cachet”, it is a letter under royal seal, issued by the king and signed by a minister, ordering me to be held. King Louis XIV personally decided I was to be imprisoned at the Bastille prison, as he did with the majority of other inmates imprisoned at the Bastille.
By 1527 Henry VIII had decided to divorce Catherine of Aragon, leading to the Reformation and the greatest crisis of his reign. Historians disagree on Henry’s fundamental desire for a divorce, the trigger for the reformation, and thus the multiple factors of the actual reformation are even more disputed. Due to the fraught political situation in Europe, which resulted in Charles V isolating and controlling the Pope, Henry was unable to gain the divorce through the Catholic Church and so was forced to consider other means by 1529. Attempting to pressurise the Pope through Parliament and by sentencing Cardinal Wolsey, his representative, to death, Henry was still unable to achieve the desired effect and thus began his attack on the Church. He reduced clerical privileges and, by charging the clergy with Praemunire, he undermined their power as representatives of the Pope in order to strengthen his own.
Enlightenment Agenda: George Washington Point of View The English Civil War was caused majorly by religion and Parliament’s wish to have more power over the monarch. It was a conflict between Charles I supporters, the Royalists or Cavaliers, and Roundheads, also known as the Parliamentarians, who were worried that Catholicism in any form would appear in the government. Another factor that lead to the English Civil War was the reigning king Charles I lack of money. Charles I lack of money and his lack of interest in Parliament when making laws angered the people. The result of the war led to King Charles I being beheaded.