BENTHAM developed the notion of democracy as a form protection for the individual into a case for universal suffrage. Utilitarian’s have argued that individuals will vote so as to advance or defend their interest. Bentham believed that universal suffrage is the only way of promoting the greatest happiness for the greatest number. However, liberals also have an ambivalent view of democracy. Liberalism places great stress on the protection of individual’s rights while democracy emphasise on collective control.
APGAP Midterm Review Guide Chapter 1: Introducing Government in America * Describe the contemporary theories of democracy: * Elitism-A government and politics theory that states that societies are divided by classes and the upper-class elite rules by influencing government, regardless of a government organization created to prevent this. * Hyper-pluralism-A government and politics theory that states that groups are so strong that they weaken the government and cripple its ability to make policies. This is an extreme version of pluralism. * Pluralism-A government and politics theory that states that politics is influenced by competing groups who press for their preferred public policies through organized efforts. * Define
The Democratic-Republicans sought to limit federal control and preferred local power as the dominant force. Chiefly, the emergence of the American two-party system arose from strongly opposed political views, but also developed out of experience and a struggle for power. As previously stated, the main reason for the development of the party system in the United States, or any political party for that matter, is a difference in beliefs on how a government should be operated. The Federalists, formed by Alexander Hamilton – Washington’s Treasury Secretary – in 1794, favored federalism with government having the power to control commerce, tax, declare war, and make treaties among other powers.
Zinn also uses an excerpt from historian Charles Beard to explain his reasoning. Beard basically said that the rich controls the government or the laws the government operates by. Zinn points out that the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights shows that quality of interest hides behind innocence. Meaning that Congress completely ignores the freedom of speech. Professor of history Gordon S. Wood views the struggle for a new constitution in 1787-1788 as a social conflict between upper-class Federalists who desired a stronger central government and the “humbler” Anti-Federalists who controlled the state assemblies.
The founding father’s were able to give the people a democratic way of electing leaders, while still having the a few of the people making important decisions in the peoples best interest. During the time of the revolution people were sick of the British parliament and felt as though the were not getting a fair and equal share in the decisions pertaining to them. Hence the phrase taxation without representation was coined. When America won the revolution many concerns and issues cropped up with the declaration of independence, it held very small amounts of power. Paying off debuts of the revolution became a choice that most states opted out on because their was no force behind the request.
Which also allowed the federal government the opportunity for revenue. One of the main emphases for the Hamilton and the Federalist Party was that the federal government was too over power the states. They felt that leaving too much power in the hands of states would only create a weak type of government, with very little power to act. Citizen’s rights would be protected by the legislation, court systems, and of course the Bill Of Rights; distrusting the people with the vote. The federalist created the House of Reps which was directly voted by the people.
Examples like “Examination day” supports this because the government stays in power by having strict laws which limit citizens intelligence. The Giver supports the claim because the government limits citizens knowledge by wiping memories and limiting their emotions. “Harrison Bergeron” supports the claim because the government there controls society through strict rules which limit uniqueness so they are “average”. With all this evidence and analysis we will ask this question, do people really want a government that controls society and do the horrible things stated above or should our goal be to help citizens and have a government that doesn’t restrict
Edmund Burke believed that the French Revolution was pointless, and that the revolutionist had risen up against a relatively liberal king and that their actions would result in other kings becoming paranoid and tyrannical. Alexis de Tocqueville saw that democracy in America seemed disorganized, but he also gained a sense that it was a stable and prosperous democracy so that he can gain an insight into how it worked. Tocqueville studies show that democratic America, mostly focuses on the structure of government and the institutions that would help maintain a free America, his focus on individuals however led him to say that individuals were affected by the democratic mentality. Tocqueville’s work finds that the main problems of a democracy are a high portion of power in the legislative
As James Madison stated, “whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country and whose patriotism and love of justice will be least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial consideration.”[viii] They understood that the unruly masses responsible for the Boston Tea Party could spark a revolution[ix], however the frenzied approach would not serve well as a functional government. They understood that “democratic governing is not the same as democratic discourse”[x]. Boucher was correct, absolute democracy is not practical. This is why a representative democracy, where all voices are heard, but where decisions are made rationally, reflecting the views of the general public, is a logical solution for a functional government representing the will of the people. A representative democracy is a form of democracy whose foundation is built on common sense.
In this respect, the main goal of liberalism is to promote a laissez-faire society and their main goal is preservation of human rights and freedoms. Secondly, liberalism aimed at ensuring that there is democracy in the society whereby the power of the monarchs and the other political class is limited. To achieve their goals, liberals enlightened members of the society about their rights and freedoms and in countries like France, Germany, and Italy liberals organized for revolutions that removed those leaders who were dictators in these countries. In addition to this, liberals championed for the rights of the minority in the society. A good example of a liberal government is the federal government of the United States of America (Jayapalan, 2009).