The meaning successfully conveyed constitutes the learning experience. 2. I like Input Hypothesis among the other theories, for it somehow describes the situation of the nearest to reality second language acquisition and learning. It can be capsulized as to ‘humans acquire language in only one way- by understanding messages or by receiving “comprehensible output (chiefly Krashen 1985).”’ In the faculty of my learning, I thereby understand that when a learner of second language acquired the latter, then it is through the understanding of the messages which are encoded by others and decoded by the certain learner. This part is also well explained.
Critically evaluate Gardner’s theory of motivation as a key influencing factor in second language acquisition With the deeper development of globalization, the ability to master a second language seems to be important. According to second language acquisition research, differences in learners largely have impacted on learning achievement, which includes age, sex, attitude, motivation, cognitive styles, and learning strategies. Among these factors, motivation is frequently used to explain why some second language learners are more successful than others. The earliest motivation theory of learning second language was proposed by Gardener and Lambert in 1959. This caused a great deal of research on this subject from later scholars subsequently.
Acquisition and learning is a principle which was designed by an american linguist named Stephen Krashen. Krashen put forward the idea that a language could be learned by means of both conscious and subconscious learning. Subconscious learning being when the student is interacting with others in use of the language. Conscious being through the use of lectures and textbook learning. Krashen explains that, "language which we acquire subconsciously (especially when it is anxiety free) is language we can easily use in spontaneous conversation because it is instantly available when we need it."
Second language acquisition means the acquisition of another language or languages after first language acquisition is under way or completed. (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams, 2007) Learning another language gives the learner the ability to step inside the mind and context of that other culture. Second language acquisition, second-language learning, or L2 acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language. Some people learn a new language more quickly and easily than others. Clearly, some language learners are successful by virtue of their determination, hard work and persistence.
The Impact of Learning Context and Age on Second Language Abstract The present study examines to which extent the oral development of a second language is affected by age and learning context. It has been based on the theory which claims that the better way to learn a foreign language is by going to the target country. Two different types of contexts were chosen: at home and study abroad. In the study, three groups of participants were examined in terms of fluency, accuracy, lexical richness and complexity. The results show that the group who was studying the language abroad improved significantly and adults outperformed children and adolescents.
Learning styles & strategies Learning styles: What do you see? 2. Learning styles & strategies Learning styles: Visual Auditory Kinesthetic or Tactile (Neil Fleming's VAK model) 2. Learning styles & strategies Learning styles: Auditory • Learning better by hearing new material. • Very likely to ask questions during a lecture.
Fortunately, the focus of second language teaching has moved from purely teaching grammar and vocabulary, to providing the skills for effective communication. In linguistics terminology, a language course should not only have “linguistic competence” as its goal, but “communicative competence” in general. But what do these terms mean? Communicative competence is a term coined by Dell Hymes in 1966 in reaction to Noam Chomsky’s (1965) notion of “linguistic competence”. Communicative competence is the intuitive functional knowledge and control of the principles of language usage.
Integrative motivation refers to a favorable attitude toward the target language community, possibly a wish to integrate and adapt to a new target culture through use of the language (Gardner, 1985, p. 54). One of the Gardner's main ideas is that the integrative motivation plays an important role in second language acquisition. It is directly and positively related to second language achievement. However, the Gardener's model has received lots of criticisms since it was published. The criticisms will be discussed in the following.
Moreover, motivation as a psychological aspect can influence language proficiency results, but this relationship is one of reciprocal causation because both the positive and the negative learning experiences can influence the student’s motivation to learn (Gardner & MacIntyre,
State of the art article A student's contributions to second-language learning. Part II: Affective variables R. C. Gardner and P. D. Maclntyre The University of Western Ontario This is the second part of a two-part article dealing with individual difference correlates of secondlanguage learning. In this part, attention is directed to a consideration of the role of affective variables in second-language learning. By affective variables, we mean those emotionally relevant characteristics of the individual that influence how she/he will respond to any situation. In the language learning situation, many such factors have been identified, but this article will focus on two broad classifications of affective factors, namely, Language attitudes and motivation, and Language anxiety and self-confidence.