7 Characteristics Of a Civilization: Egypt

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7 characteristics of a civilization: Egypt Trade: Trade was done by barter, a reasonably efficient method when mostly basic necessities were exchanged. Even after coined money was introduced in the second half of the first millennium BCE, barter continued to be widespread among the farming population for centuries. Grain and oil often served as a kind of coinage . This use of basic storable food stuffs had both advantages and drawbacks. If all one earned was expended on food anyway and there was practically no choice about the kind of food one could get, then eating one's wages was a system less cumbersome than being remunerated in specie and having to acquire the food afterwards. During famines which were quite frequent, one did not starve if one had savings; and many a peasant rose on the social ladder by exchanging hoarded corn for land during times of dearth. Development of Science and Arts: The greatest element in this civilization was its art. Here, almost at the threshold of history, we find an art powerful and mature, superior to that of any modern nation, and equalled only by that of Greece. At first the luxury of isolation and peace, and then, under Thutmose III and Ramses II, the spoils of oppression and war, gave to Egypt the opportunity and the means for massive architecture, masculine statuary, and a hundred minor arts that so early touched perfection. Mathematics At the very outset of recorded Egyptian history we find mathematics highly developed; the design and construction of the Pyramids involved a precision of measurement impossible without considerable mathematical lore. Astronomy of Egyptian physics and chemistry we know nothing, and almost as little of Egyptian astronomy. The stargazers of the temples seem to have conceived the earth as a rectangular box, with mountains at the corners upholding the sky. Anatomy Despite the
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