6.2 Chart And Explain How And Why Emissions Tradin Essay
2632 Words11 Pages
Over the past five decades there has been an undoubted shift of leadership of stringency and innovation within European and American environmental policies where the former has taken up the mantel of leading the way in environmental and consumer protection policies at the expense of the latter. David Vogel sees this pattern of divergence within environmental and consumer protection policies taken place over three periods. From the 1960s through the mid 1980s, American regulatory standards tended to be more stringent and innovative than in either individual European countries or in the European Union (EU). The period between the mid 1980s and 1990 was a transitional period: some regulations were more stringent and innovative in the EU, while others were more stringent and innovative in the United States. The pattern since 1990 is the obverse of the quarter-century between 1960 and the mid 1980s: recent EU consumer and environmental regulations have typically been more stringent and innovative than those of the US (Vogel 2003). There can be no doubt that Kyoto was a watershed mark within this transition. However Vogel maintains that while Europe is now leading the way in environmental and consumer protection issues it will not always be the case. With Vogel’s conclusion in mind I shall examine the merits of this argument by evaluating firstly the history of both European and American environmental policies within the last fifty years and also evaluate whether or not European Environmental policy implementation will head in the same direction as the present American stance. Because consumer protection policies were so important in shaping future environmental policies they shall be quite prominent in my evaluation of both Europe and America in Vogel’s first period.
The importance of American and European leadership within environmental policies is unquestioned.