5Th Grade Essay

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l. a) What were some of the main features of African societies in the nineteenth century prior to the advent of formal colonial conquest? b) How did societies and individuals respond to the threats and opportunities posed by industrialized, militarily powerful European countries bent on expanding their religion and culture? = a) - Indian Ocean trading networks - They were on their way to creating a peaceful and prosperous society with the influence of Western missionaries and surrounding African countries, and they were doing well for themselves in terms of wealth, trade, spread of culture, and education. - Progression of Africa from a gatherer, barter system, independent-state society to a network-based, capitalistic and nationalistic country. - Movement of people from their birth towns in Africa to different regions, as a result of trading with neighboring African countries. - More equitable distribution of wealth following the removal of the slave trade and instead implementing the trade of natural products/resources. - The internal or rural economy of Africa had become more deeply integrated into the capitalist world-economy than before. - Building of the nation-states by the imposition of the language and culture of the conquering states or dynasties. b) - The standard of living of the African converts has changed, for some were wearing European-style clothes, had gained access to modern medicine, were living in houses built in a modern style, were practicing monogamous marriage, and were feeling contemptuous of their own traditional institutions, their traditional polygamous system of marriage, and their traditional marriage. - Further stratification of African societies into a relatively small Christian educated elite, particularly in western and Southern Africa, and a large traditional and illiterate group.

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