It carries energy around the cell to where it’s needed. ATP is synthesised from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) using energy from an energy-releasing reaction e.g the breakdown of glucose in respiration. The energy is stored as chemical energy in the phosphate bond, the enzyme ATP synthase catalyses this reaction. ATP diffuses to the part of the cell that needs energy. Here it’s broken down back into ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi).
When a photon of light hits a chlorophyll molecule, the chlorophyll is excited, and one of its electrons is promoted to a higher energy state. This electron, however, would eventually come back down to its original ‘ground state’, and in doing so, releases a small amount of energy. This energy is used to drive the endothermic reaction which combines ADP (adenosine diphosphate) to an inorganic phosphate group in order to produce a molecule of ATP. However, in virtually all other organisms, ATP is produced by respiration. Respiration could be put simply as the transfer of energy stored in larger organic molecules such as glucose into the ATP form.
Digestive enzymes are hydrolytic enzymes. Their substances, or the molecules on which they act are organic food molecules which they breakdown by adding water to the molecular bonds, thus cleaving the bonds between the subunits or monomers. Digestive enzymes can function outside the body cells; their activity can be studied by test tubes (Marieb and Mitchell 2010). This experiment attempts to re-create the breakdown process that is normally done via digestion with Iodine as a vital component. It can be expected that once amylase reacts with the starch, maltose will then be broken down and less starch will be visible and more sugar will be apparent thus causing the solution mixed with iodine to become lighter and lighter.
In order for aerobic respiration to occur, the 5 stages that have to take place are glycolysis, oxidation of pyruvate, Krebs’s cycle, electron transport chain, and chemiosmosis (Notes, 10/5/15). Glycolysis is the splitting down of the sugar molecules into 2 3-carbon molecules. The reactants for this process are the sugar molecule, 2 ATP, 2NAD+, and 4 ADP+Pi. This is the first stage of this cellular process in which takes place in the cytoplasm and it has to occur in order to generate ATP from the substrate level phosphorylation. The products of this stage are passed down into the next stages.
Enzymes are proteins that are used to speed up these reactions without being consumed by them. The activity of these enzymes can be altered by changing their environments, such as enzyme specificity (speed only a reaction that contains their substrate), increasing and decreasing temperature, concentration level, or adjusting the pH level. Catalase is a catalyst that digests potent hydrogen peroxide and converts it into H2O and O. It is due to this hydrogen peroxide digesting ability that we used catalase in this experiment. To record the role that environment plays in the reaction of an enzyme, we exposed the enzyme to various changes in temperature, concentration, and pH.
Internal Assessment To test how temperature affects the rate of enzyme activity in the liver? Name: Chandre Putter Grade: 11 Words: 2380 Design Section Research Question/Aim How does temperature affect the rate of enzyme activity in the liver? Introduction Enzymes are ‘globular proteins that work as catalysts’ (1), meaning they speed up chemical reactions (metabolic reactions) without having to be altered. Enzymes are made by living cells and also speed up biochemical reactions. Living creatures produce thousands of enzymes, and the reason for this is because; ‘most enzymes only catalyze one biochemical reaction’ (1), and many different enzymes are need to do this.
(Swann, 2008) The pancreas also makes amylase (alpha amylase) to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy. Hypothesis: Most enzymes are very specific for a certain substrate. The active site on the enzyme molecule forms a keyhole into which the substrate fits like a key. The substrate molecule is then broken up into many smaller pieces. “The higher the reaction temperature, the more kinetic
Both animal and plant cells have a nucleus, they both go through cell division and both cells have the main organelles to complete protein synthesis. Plant cells can convert light and water into energy (photosynthesis), therefore animal cell cannot, a plant cell has a vacuole. This is a sac in which the cell stores water and nutrients which are later converted into energy. An animal cell has no vacuole as it does not make its own food and therefore does not need to store these nutrients in that way. A plant cell has chloroplasts.
Acetogenesis is the creation of acetate, which is a derivative of acetic acid. To do this we must use more microorganisms. They catabolise most of the product in created from the previous process into acetic acid, CO2 and H2. Acetogens break down biomass to a point to which it is acceptable to create methane. In the last process called Methangenisis.
These so-called ‘building blocks’ of plants are tissue and food energy in the form of chemicals called carbohydrates. Carbohydrates contain amino acids, sugars, starches, proteins, fats and vitamins – all the organic materials needed by animals for growth, movement and reproduction. Plants therefore, form the basis of all nutrition and energy for the whole ecosystem. This is because they provide food for other organisms, which in turn feed others in what we call the food chain. The first trophic level is made up of producers (autotrophs), these are ‘self feeders’ and include green plants capable of producing their own food by photosynthesis.