Thalamus – Muscle movement and processing sensory information. Hippocampus – Processes recent memories into stored memory Limbic system - Emotions and smell. 1.3. Explain why depression, delirium and age related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia Depression is caused by chemical imbalances in the brain. A person who is depressed can often show similar signs or symptoms to a person that has dementia.
Generally, this type of amnesia is temporary, and gradually restoration of memory is very common. The areas of the brain that are impaired in retrograde amnesia, the hippocampus, the temporal lobe, and the prefrontal cortex, are associated with primarily declarative and episodic memory. Apparently what occurs is that the brains consolidation process is disrupted; therefore, that area of the brain loses memory of events that were not fully stored. In contrast, anterograde amnesia refers to the loss of memory from the time of the injury, or illness, forward. For example, a victim in an accident resulting in head injury may have difficulty remembering anything new.
Dementia Awareness Unit 237 Dementia is a condition which is the gradual loss of brain function, this also makes it degenerative. It can include symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, problems with speech and understanding. Dementia at the moment has no cure, as it has a number of diseases that coincide with it. Alzheimer’s is part of dementia. Functions that are affected by dementia are; Short term Memory loss, Language skills, the ability to interpret information, spatial skills, judgement and attention.
NVQ Level 2 Adult Social Care Understand what dementia is 1.1 -Explain what is meant by the term ‘dementia’ The word dementia describes a set of symptoms that may include memory loss and difficulties with thinking, problem-solving or language. Dementia is caused when the brain is damaged by diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or a series of strokes. 1.2 -Describe the key functions of the brain that are – affected by dementia The key functions that are affected by dementia are as follows: temporal lobe which is responsible for vision, memory, language, hearing and learning. Frontal lobe which is responsible for decision making, problem solving, control behaviour and emotions. Parietal lobe which is responsible for sensory information from the body, also where letters are formed, putting things in order and spatial awareness.
The medical model of dementia the medical model refers to what the clinical approach to dementia is for example how the changes in the brain happen, when the occur and how the condition is managed and what medication is used to manage it. Dementia as a clinical syndrome is characterised by global cognitive impairment,which represents a decline from previous level of functioning, and is associated withimpairment in functional abilities and, in many cases, behavioural and psychiatricdisturbances. a syndrome due to disease of the brain, usually of a chronic or progressive nature, in which there is disturbance of multiple higher cortical functions, including memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capability, language, and judgement. Consciousness is not impaired. Impairments of cognitive function are commonly accompanied, occasionally preceded, by deterioration in emotional control, social behaviour, or motivation.
Dementia can affect the following key functions of the brain: - Temporal lobe - Parietal lobe - Frontal lobe - Occipital lobe - Hippocampus - Cerebrum lobe These all affect the function of: -Memory -Emotion -Cognitive skills -Perception -Behaviour -Communication -Senses and movement 1.3 Explain why depression, delirium and age related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia. Delirium, age related memory and depression often affect the memory and cognitive impairment, which can be mistaken for dementia. If someone is clinically depressed, their symptoms may be very similar to someone who has got dementia. Delirium, like dementia, is more common in older adults. Depression, delirium and age related memory impairment are all symptoms of dementia.
For information about other types of dementia, please see the following factsheets: • What is Alzheimer’s disease? (401) 1 • What is vascular dementia? (402) (this factsheet includes Binswanger’s disease) • What is dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)? (403) • What is frontotemporal dementia? (404) • What is Korsakoff’s syndrome?
1.3 Explain why depression, delirium and age-related memory impairment may be mistaken for dementia Because this are symptoms of dementia but the cause for them to happen can be different: - for depression: a person can be depressed but not suffer for dementia; - for delirium: it can be caused by an infection and the person could become confused and suffer with memory loss which are also signs and symptoms of dementia; - for age-related memory impairment: if someone becomes forgetful they might think or others might think they have dementia because a lot of people associate dementia with old age and memory loss but younger people can be affected too. 2. Understand key features of the theoretical models of dementia: 2.1 Outline the medical model of dementia Dementia has to managed and treated rather than the person. 2.2 Outline
Dementia syndrome or ‘mixed dementia’are terms for a condition in which abnormalities characteristic of more than one type of dementia occur simultaneously in the brain. In the most common form of mixed dementia, the abnormal protein deposits associated with Alzheimer’s disease coexist with blood vessel problems linked to vascular dementia. Mixed dementia symptoms may vary,
Dementia Awareness Understand what dementia is. 1) Dementia is where there is a decline of the brain and its abilities, it is caused when the brain is damaged by disease, for example, Alzheimer’s disease, damage to the brain or a series of strokes. There are several types of dementia these include, vascular, Alzheimer’s, lewy bodies, fronto-temporal. 2) Areas affected by dementia are memory loss, speed of thinking, mental agility, language, understanding and judgement. 3) Other conditions such as depression and delirium both have similar symptoms as dementia.