1984 Book Review

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The Political Ideologies of Nineteen Eighty-Four and Their Relevance in Contemporary Societies. Nineteen Eighty-Four is a 1949 dystopian novel authored by George Orwell centred on an oligarchic dictatorship that rules and controls every aspect of everyday life through ubiquitous state surveillance and perpetual public mind control. Nineteen Eighty-Four is set in Oceania which is one of three intercontinental super-states that were created after a world war. The Majority of the plot takes place in London, the "chief city of Airstrip One", a province of Oceania that "had once been called England or Britain". This essay will focus on the political ideology and practise in Nineteen Eighty-Four and explore and compare its relevance to contemporary societies. The state of Oceania is ruled with the political ideology of “Ingsoc” which is a ‘newspeak’ word (the official language of Oceania which removes ‘unnecessary’ words) and portmanteau of “English Socialism”. Ingsoc originated after the socialist party took over, however ‘The Party’ continually rewrites history and consequently it is difficult to establish the exact beginning of English Socialism. However it is known that Oceania was created from the unification of the Americas with the British Empire. ‘Big Brother’ and Emmanuel Goldstein were at the forefront of the Party’s socialist revolution; however Goldstein and Big Brother became enemies, “Goldstein was the renegade and …had been one of the leading figures of the Party…then had engaged in counterrevolutionary activities, had been condemned to death, and had mysteriously escaped and disappeared.” Goldstein is also a figurehead of any rebellious movement and he is said to be the author of a revolutionary book named, “The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism” however it later becomes clear that the book was actually written by a committee of the Party

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