The book begins with a quick summary of the epidemiology and human costs of the influenza in the year of 1918. There is a lot of background information in the beginning of the book, which gave a better understanding of the scientist’s involved and general information on diseases. Kolata then turns to the main focus of the book, sciences effort to understand what exactly happened in 1918. She covers many experiments, which soon leads to the conclusion that the flu had not been caused by bacteria, but by a virus. In the year of 1918 the spread of the flu started by Germans who slipped into Boston Harbor on U-boats and then sneaked ashore, carrying vials of plague germs with them.
Death was rampant at this time. Diseases such as smallpox, measles, malaria, influenza, and yellow fever were transferred from the old wold to The Europeans had been exposed to these sicknesses before and had different cures and ways of fighting it. But when the Indians caught wind of these illnesses they were devastated by the effects. There tribes were very susceptible, through the air and through touch. They were a more isolated human, so when the Europeans came and took over there immune systems were not at all prepared to face and fight back al;l the diseases that came there way.
Between the Americas and the Pacific islands, small pox, but measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, and influenza took heavy tolls on many people. In the western hemisphere, before the voyages, none of the people acquired or possessed those diseases, but in the eastern hemisphere, they were endemic. When these infectious diseases traveled to unexposed populations, it set-off terrible epidemics that destroyed entire societies. In 1519, the epidemic smallpox took over the Aztec empire. Imported diseases took the worst tolls in less populated areas like the Aztec and Inca empires.
With the trading of the Columbian Exchange, diseases were increasing and affecting both the Americas and Europe. The Europeans brought multiple new diseases to the Native American population, smallpox being a major known disease. Wiping out two-thirds of the Native American population, they weren’t used to the infectious disease being brought with domesticated animals. With the impact of diseases not being as effective on Europe as it was for the Americas, Europe could withstand it. Also demographically, the start of sugar plantations and silver mines was another major effect on the Native Americans.
As the soldiers came home from the war, it was believed that they brought the virus back with them. The polio virus was thought to begin in France. It started in Brooklyn, New York because of the overcrowded and dirty immigration neighborhood. There were 9,000cases just in New York. The Spanish influenza had started in Spain and worked up its way into
Epidemic Outbreak of “The Herpes Virus” (Assignment #1) Herpes is an infection caused by the etiologic agents Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 is the type generally known for causing oral herpes outbreaks, also known as cold sores or fever blisters. These blisters last from a week to a month, becoming open sores that crust over with scabs. The outbreak following the initial infection (usually a few days to a few weeks afterward) is usually the worst—the ones after that are less painful. Some people actually confuse their mild outbreaks with other skin conditions such as “eczema”.
INTRODUCTION ON THE 1918 INFLUENZA PANDEMIC AND THE CYTOKINE STORM PHENOMENA Influenza pandemic 1918 is an epidemic of influenza virus that’s has spread worldwide and infected a large population. This epidemic affected the course of history and was a terrifying presence at the end of World War 1 and a worst season of death in America’s history . The 1918 pandemic spread more or less simultaneously in 3 distinct effects during the 12-month period in 1918–1919, in Europe, Asia, and North America and the first sign was best describe in the United States in March 1918. The virus is H1N1 type A influenza . Like general flu, where the majority deaths are seen in the elderly and children under 2 years old, approximately half of the deaths linked
The main symptom of the plague is swelling of lymph nodes, and that creates a blackish color. From this they got a second name for the plague: The Black Death. The bubonic plague first started in Central Asia, but historians believe that it was spread from Mongolian merchants into Europe. Much like silk and spices, the plague followed global trade routes, reaching every populous corner of the earth in less than 30 years. Caffa, Constantinople, Cairo, Venice, Genoa, Tunis, Gibraltar, all were conquered by Y. pestis.
Influenza A virus Infects multiple hosts – aquatic (grab rest from crhsis) Influenza A naming Virus type – origin – strain number - year of isolation – virus subtype Influenza C – infects pigs and humans Almost excuslisvng a human pathogen B and C Causes mild illness and may causes local epidemeics Antigenic drift – RNA dependent RNA polymerase No proofreading function Highly error prone 1 – every 10 000 nucleotides 1 errror each new virion = mutant viruses andDRIFT slight mutant change occurs in influenza A B C Antigentic Shift Reassortment event 2 different viruses or strains that ocme togethert to form a new viral subtypre occur sonly with flu A – result of large host rane – great chance of combo results in
5. Epidemic Infectious Disease: Smallpox and Typhoid Krutika Gandhi SSC 495 B Evolution of the Health Professions: Historical and Public Policy Perspectives on Health and Illness Professor Jennifer Tebbe October 22, 2014 Word Count 880 There have been many infectious diseases that have been found throughout the history of mankind. These epidemics are a universal problem that draws worldwide attention. At the turn of the 20th century, there were two infectious disease epidemics, smallpox and typhoid, that had created a major impact in the United States. Smallpox and typhoid were prominent