A better education and health care will improve the labors’ output, as productivity will be higher. Further to this, people will be more able to save more from their increase in income, which allows higher rates of investment and therefore increase in growth. The graph above is a PPF curve, which shows consumer goods against capital goods. Since there is an increase in Aggregate demand, this will potentially lead to an increase in economic growth as seen from the graph above. However, on the other hand an excessively equal
Before we explore how a reduction in the interest rates leads to an increase in consumption we must first define what it exactly means to consume. Mainstream economists such as Tim Harford define consumption as the spending by house holds on consumer products and services. As the interest rate decreases it leads to consequential reactions on behalf of consumers, one of these actions is an increase in the level of goods consumed. This is a result of it being cheaper to borrow money from banks and other financial institutions, this meaning purchases which have been prolonged or “put off” by consumers can now be readily purchased. This is an effect of a lower opportunity cost as the overall cost associated with borrowing has decreased and the marginal benefit of saving has increased, meaning consumers will receive more of a benefit if they purchase goods on credit based agreements opposed to saving, leading to an increase in the amount of credit transactions.
Since privatisation, companies such as BT, and British Airways have shown degrees of improved efficiency and higher profitability due to the competitiveness within their respective industries. It can also be noticed that vast improvements in technology have occurred due to investment in order to achieve these efficiency and profit increases. As efficiencies increase, firms are more willing to produce at a lower price, effectively shifting the supply curve to the right. This causes a reduction in the price from P1 to P2 and an increase in the equilibrium quantity from Q1 to Q2. Another possible advantage of privatisation is an increase in competition as the privatisation of state owned monopolies usually occurs at the same time as deregulation of the industry.
If there is spare capacity (negative output gap), then demand side policies can play a role in increasing economic growth. For example if we decrease interest rates, we will increase the demand in the economy as people have more money as their mortgage costs are decreased. It is the same idea with lowering taxes - this will boost demand, as people have more money to spend as less is taken away from them by the government. Aggregate demand is made up of consumption (consumer spending, Investments Government spending and Exports (minus) imports (Net exports). If anything affects these factors will result in affecting the demand.
Changes in operations will help increase job exports. For the U.S., companies export new capital equipment and production to help create potential competitors. Importing countries demand that exporters shift part of their production to the purchasing nation in order to gain their sale over others. The emphasis on exports to developing countries combined with the focus on sales of new capital goods may introduce inappropriate technologies into nations with high unskilled labor pools. Exports of mining, petroleum, and infrastructure equipment may help multinational corporations and developed countries access cheaper raw materials, with few benefits for the residents of developing countries.
Developing countries also benefit as the population get access to employment and the development of new skills, leading to more money being spent helping the economy to improve infrastructure and services improving the quality of life in the country. TNCs that do well in the developing countries raise the status of the country encouraging investment from other well know transnational corporations and most importantly it will improve the country’s economy drastically as valuable export revenues will be earned. On the other hand, most developing countries do not benefit as much as developed countries do, for example, sometimes much of the employment is low paid, low skill and long hours meaning that the country does not develop economically or give the opportunity to develop their skills. Another drawback is that there has been large negative press about TNCs and the poor working conditions in which people operate in; this includes the lack of safety requirements and the long hours of working. Transnational corporations like high profit, and countries where there is less regulations, therefore they often go to countries where there is less ‘red tape’ with regard to safety leading to TNCs
These are designed to increase the level of AD and increase in national income. Lower taxation/higher government spending or lower interest rates will encourage more consumption. The diagram shows an increase in real GDP (economic growth) and a falling output gap. We would expect there to be a fall in unemployment. Therefore two objectives have been met.
The fed has to set a lower reserve requirement, which allows banks to loan out more money, which generates more interest, which could lead to periods of inflation and could have worse consequences if the government does not react quickly enough. Inflation would decrease the purchasing power of an individual's money, which would lead to more saving and less spending. (Fried) Less spending would mean less money being injected into the circular flow of our economy and would lead to economic crisis. However, many critics also use this to determine how national debt does not have a huge impact on the economy. A huge national debt has no effect on the money market.
If unemployment falls, less people will be claiming unemployment benefits and other similar pay-outs from the government, this will allow a lot of tax to be spent on other things, such as expanding public services further, which also leads to an increase in living standards. Another benefit of economic growth is the increase in confidence, with all these new goods and services on offer to the country, the consumer