Lewis, Bernard What Went Wrong: Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response. Oxford University Press, 2002, 186 pages.
What went wrong in the Middle East is hard to focus on one particular point but multiple things over a few hundred years form the early eighteen century to the present day. The Islamic world was struggling with modernization. During early Islam they were the most intellectual and powerful area in Europe and Asia. Then during the peak of their power and intellectual reign the Khan Dynasty destroyed the center of the Community in Baghdad. From this time forward the Islamic world was in a slow descent from the top power of the time. After Baghdad was destroyed by the Khans they never again had a center of intellects again. During the crusades for instance the Europeans started buying good from the Middle East but the Middle Eastern Muslims didn’t want anything from the barbarian Europeans. But around the eighteenth century Muslim were getting beat by just about every European power they faced and because they were still fighting on horseback and with swords while the Europeans were fighting with guns and cannons.
So with the Europeans constantly beating Muslims in war they decided that they had to modernize and the areas that they focused on were: diplomacy, commerce, and war. At first the Islamic countries used locals that left Europe to live in the religious lax Muslim world but not all became Muslims but some did convert to Islam. The Sultan and Caliph would use them at first to be diplomats for the Islamic side during treaties. Then after a while the Sultan or Caliph didn’t want somebody to be the middle man for the diplomatic talks so they then learned Italian to communicate with Europeans.
When the Middle East wanted to get more involved in commerce like they were during and shortly after the crusades. They started to send young males to attend Universities in Europe which ended up being very bad for the core Islamic...