The urinary system maintains the composition and properties of the body fluid that establishes the internal environment of the body cells. Its functions are accomplished through a formation of urine from the kidneys. Just as the digestive system, the respiratory system, and the integumentary system, the urinary system is also a system designed for secretion of fluid. In light of this responsibility and design, these systems are commonly known as excretory systems as well. The very core of cellular metabolism is based on the principle of the body’s ability to turn air and nutrients into energy, whether from the oxygen brought in by the respiratory system or the nutrients brought in by the digestive system, the cells utilize this energy for sustaining life. The same metabolic process which produces energy also produces wastes. The elimination of these wastes is also necessary to maintain homeostasis as the buildup of wastes can lead to toxic poisoning of the body. Without the process perfected by the urinary system, the body would poison itself to death. Hence, Urinary system is one of the most important systems of our body.
The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, the urinary bladder, and a urethra. The normal kidney size of an adult human is about 10 to 13 cm (4 to 5 inches) long and about 5 to 7.5 cm (2 to 3 inches) wide. They are dark-red, bean-shaped organs, located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. The color of the kidney comes from small capillaries that release blood into the kidney walls to give it a reddish-brown look. The kidney is divided into two main areas, a light outer area called the renal cortex, and a darker inner area called the renal medulla. There is a cavity attached to the indented side of the kidney, called the Renal Pelvis which extends into the ureter. Each Kidney is enclosed in a transparent membrane called the renal capsule which helps to protect them against infections...