PASCULIN ISABEL SCOTLAND: THE UNION(S) WITH ENGLAND AND OTHER IMPLICATIONS
First records of Scotland are dated in the 1 st century AD, when Scots came in the territory, along with Picti and Celts. After few years we can see the first attempts of political unity, when Pictis and Scots join forces for the Kingdom of Scotland, which lasts from 9th to 13th century. In 1314 Robert Bruce inflicted a defeat on the British in the battle of Bannockburn, near Stirling. With this action, Scotland conquered almost four centuries of independence. 43 years later, England had to recognize the independence of Scotland. This episode, however, did not mark the end of the conflicts, both internal and external1. Scotland, Wales and England, have insisted for many centuries in the struggle to preserve their independence despite invasions and alliances during the time. England was prepared to conquer Scotland, but they failed for lack of funds. Only in 1603 a project of unity between England and Scotland was considered. Until that moment every opportunity of an union between the two countries was a result of invasions and negotiations, but the 17th century introduces a change in their relationships.
UNION OF THE CROWNS During the end of 13th Century Scotland and France formed an alliance even if the latter was a great English enemy. France, asked for help in the War of Hundred years, which marked the beginning of a lasting alliance. This union was strengthen with various nuptial agreements. One of this was when James V (King of Scotland) married Madelaine de Valois and later Mary of Guise. From this second wedding was born a girl, Mary Stuart. When the baby was only one, her dad died. At such young age Scottish lords weren't able to respect her power, so they sent her to France for her safety2. As she was also the great granddaughter of Henry VII of England she
1 TREVELYAN, G.M., A Shortened History of England, Longmans, Green&Co, London, 1942 2 FRASER, A. Mary Queen of Scots,...