Type 2 Diabetes
Type (II) Diabetes
Diabetes is a complex metabolic disease that is generally categorized by either relative or absolute insulin deficiency. In 1997 the ADA issued new diagnostic and classification criteria for this disease. The classification of diabetes mellitus includes four clinical classes.
• Type I diabetes (results from beta cell destruction, usually leading to absolute insulin deficiency).
• Type II diabetes (results from a progressive insulin secretory defect on the background of insulin resistance).
• Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) usually temporary condition during pregnancy.
• Other types are due to causes ranging from:
a. generic defects in beta cell function
b. genetic defects in insulin action
c. diseases of the exocrine pancreas
d. drug or chemical induction
For the purposes of this report, the concentration will be on type II diabetes. Each type
obviously have its own complexities that are unique to it.
Type II diabetes, which is also sometimes known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) is a “heterogeneous disorder characterized by impaired insulin secretion and reduced tissue sensitivity to insulin” [Rubin]. Within the pancreas, specifically the islets of langerhans exist beta cells. The beta cell is the area where production secretion and sequestering of insulin takes place. The beta cell, which is a sensory cell, contains surface glucose receptors within the plasma membrane, which monitor extraneous cellular glucose concentration. When glucose levels are low insulin is sequestered within the cell in vesicles and production is halted. Simply put when there is less glucose available less enters the beta cell and the metabolism of cell slows. ATP production shows a corresponding decrease. Under these conditions the Ca2+ channels of the beta cell are closed. When glucose levels rise in the extra-cellular environment of the beta cell glucose enters the cell faster...