Creole is generally used to refer to a language
which is the result of contact between the
languages of a colonising people and the
languages of a colonised people.
A language that has evolved in a contact
situation to become the native language of a
generation of speakers.
Patois (patwa) – is generally used to refer to a
(any) geographical language which differs from
the standard language of a country.
Like non-standard, rural dialects it lacks
prestige. In the Caribbean, the term is generally
used to refer to English-lexicon Creoles.
It is also used with a more restricted or precise
meaning to refer to Creoles of a French lexical
base e.g. in St. Lucia, Martinique, Trinidad etc.
Variation exists at all levels of linguistic
structure: phonetics, phonology, morphology,
syntax and semantics.
Phonetic and phonological variation – differences
in the production and distribution of sounds.
call vs. caal if vs. ef
tick vs. teak boil vs. bayl
want vs. want
th: t,f - thing = ting vs. fing
thief = tief vs. fief
earth = ert vs. erf;
health = helte vs. helfe
teeth = teet vs. teef
throat = troat vs. froat
thrust = trust vs. frust
th: d, v - bathe = bade vs. bave
k: ky; gy; - car = cyar
dare = dyear
campus = cyampus
garden = gyarden
girl = gyirl vs. gyal
Morphological variation – different morphemes
used for the same function in two varieties.
E.g. the possessive morpheme – used when one
person possesses something else as follows:
my book, her book, Teds book, the old mans book
vs. Ted book, the old man book
himself - heself or hisself herself - sheself
Myself – myself
Syntactic variation – differences in how words are
put together to form sentences.
I am eating - mi a eat vs. ah eatin vs. I deh eatin
Mi did tell he vs. I had tell him
I went to POS vs. I did go to POS
I working KFC vs. ah does work KFC