THEMES IN INDIAN WRITING IN ENGLISH
The end of World War II led to the end of colonialism, which in turn saw the emergence of independent nations, trying to gain a foothold in the world. India was one of those nations. Before Independence, Indian Writing in English had no direct relation to the events which led to Independence. Hence, it was neglected by most critics. However, post-independence, this situation changed. The concern of the new poets became their relationship to and alienation from the realities of their society. In particular, they faced a challenge from the older nationalist intellectuals and from regionalists who demanded a renaissance of the culture of the pre-colonial languages of India.
Many of the poets, had left India for study or to travel abroad or simply because they were dissatisfied. Some of them returned after Independence only to realise that the post-independence India was not the same as the India they had left years ago. Hence they were disillusioned and they were struggling to understand their own motherland. Therefore, their feelings of alienation and nostalgia were highlighted in their poems. They also shed light on important issues such as the ambiguity of religion and the subjugation of women. The poets also adopted the Marxist ideology to give a voice to their protests in their poems.
ALIENATION: Colonialism led to the migration of many Indians to other countries for better prospects and education. However, after Independence, when these people came back to India, they found it difficult to completely integrate themselves into the culture. They did not feel connected to the country where they lived, nor did they feel connected to the country of their birth. Hence a feeling of rootlessness emerged which can be seen in the writings of several poets. Poets like Ezekiel, Jussawala, Ramanujan are further alienated in the field of Indian English literature, not just by their English language education,...