The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires Essay

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The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empire controlled a section of the world we call the Middle East. These empires controlled present day Iran, India, Turkey, and the Balkan Peninsula. These empires ruled for many centuries through a combination of military and economic power. They shared many similar characteristics in their political social and economic aspects.
The Ottoman Empire was ruled by a sultan. The sultan was an absolute monarch, who was called the Caliph of Islam. The Sultan ruled through an imperial council that was lead by the chief minister or the Grand Vezir. The Sultan would relay his desires to the Grand Vezir through a screen.   The main duty of the sultan was to ensure justice to all people. The sultan had spies to help regulate government officials and make sure they were just. Public opinion was the true foundation of the empire, to the extent that, all members of the empire could approach the Imperial council to complain about government officials. Wars were planned years in advance to ensure justice and accommodate the people.   The emperor of the Safavid Empire was called the Shah. The bureaucracy was appointed officials, often from different countries to eliminate competition. The senior officials were appointed by merit and not by birth.   The Shah shared a large interest in economy and engaged in commercial and manufacturing activities. The Shah would check on the honesty of his subject by going to the street markets in disguise similarly to the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. The power of the Shah was created by establishing a permanent, paid army of his own, made up mainly of prisoners from the Caucasus, to avoid having to rely on Qizilbash military support in every Safavid campaign.   The emperor of the Mughal Empire was an autocrat. He had a council of ministers to consult with, but was not bound by their word. The emperor was the center of the government in the Mughal Empire. He was the supreme head of state, commander in chief of the...

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