Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences
Diploma of superior studies
Subject: Philosophical Texts and Terms in English Language
Written by: Rami BOU KAMEL
Directed by: Dr. Ayda GEBRAYEL
The hero dismantled
The stranger as an example
Philosophy have had always its intimate issues and questions, but these did not accompany its journey in all periods. Thus at some historical hinges some issues have divorced philosophy forever, while others were shuttling between philosophy and science.
From pre-Plato’s era till the renaissance, remarkably with Descartes, God, the universe and the human being - in this respect - were the issues man dedicated his mental powers in the hope of solving them ontologically. But with no convincing or sufficient answers Kant started his critical project redirecting the questions from the ontological to the “device” itself (human reason), which was considered responsible for solving those questions. By this transformation of subject, philosophy turned to be a knowledge research, but not totally and not so fast. Ontological researches will go on with Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, the German idealism representatives. Although they start from a pantheist point of view derived from Spinoza and Leibniz, they limited their studies in the same issues: god, the universe and the human being but with some more value to the least, as a synthesis of matter and consciousness (Hegel).
So far, the human being is god’s special creature. Man encloses a gift from Him, a gift that graced him since the creation: Spirit. This gracefulness of Man subsequently made the earth (the previous heaven) the centre of the universe and thus the centre of god’s providence, the state which won’t stay long. The first disgrace or humiliation will take place with Galileo and Copernicus physical researches and new results: the earth is not the centre of the universe, the sun is, and the whole perspective...