Unit 1: Foundations in Human Physiology – Structure, Function and Permeability of cells.
The human body is composed of thousands of cells and they are the building blocks of all living things. Cells are there to provide structure for the body, take nutrients from food, convert nutrients into energy and they also contain the body’s hereditary material. Cells then join together to form tissues, organs, organ systems and finally organisms.
There are two categories of cells; Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes. Prokaryotic cells are organisms that lack a nuclear membrane and can also be known as bacteria. Eukaryotes however do contain a nucleus and this is where the nucleus stores the eukaryote cell’s DNA. Another important difference is that eukaryotes contain membrane bound components in which specific activities take place. Eukaryotes are the most common type of cell and can be found in fungi, animal’s plants and humans. Within this cell there are many organelles that all have their own function for example mitochondria or chloroplast performs metabolic functions and energy conversion.
Cytoplasm is made up of a jelly-like fluid, this is what holds all the organelles.
The cytoskeleton makes up the cell’s structural framework. The cytoskeleton determines the cells shape, participates in cell division, and allows cells to move.
The endoplasmic reticulum transports molecules to their specific destinations either inside or outside the cell.
The Golgi apparatus packages molecules processed by the endoplasmic reticulum to be transported out of the cell.
These organelles are the recycling centre of the cell. They digest bacteria that invades the cell, and gets of toxic substances.
Mitochondria converts energy from food into a form that the cell can use.
The nucleus makes the cell to grow, mature, divide, or die. It also...