THEORIES OF LEARNING
Learning is commonly defined as a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one's knowledge, skills, values, and world views (Illeris, 2000; Ormorod,
1995). Learning as a process focuses on what happens during learning. Explanations of what happens constitute the learning theories. A learning theory is an attempt to describe how people and animals learn, thereby helping us understand the inherently complex process of learning. Learning theories have two chief values according to Hill (2002).
One is in providing us with vocabulary and a conceptual framework for interpreting the examples of learning that we observe.
The other is in suggesting where to look for solutions to practical problems. The theories do not give us solutions, but they do direct our attention to those variables that are crucial in finding solutions.
There are three main categories under which learning theories fall are
Behaviorism : Behaviorism focuses only on the objectively observable aspects of learning.
Cognitivism: Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning.
Constructivism: Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts.
Psychologists have examined the learning process of the child thoroughly and have developed some theories of learning on the basis of these .Among the theories of learning the most important theories are-
Pavlov’s Theory of Conditioning Thorndike’s theory of connectionism, Gestalt Theory of Insight, and
Field theory of learning. Constructivism
Behaviorism as a theory was primarily developed by B. F. Skinner. It loosely encompasses the work of people like Thorndike, Tolman, Guthrie, and Hull. Behaviorists describe ‘conditioning’ as the only way of learning. What characterizes these investigators is their underlying...