Simulation and Observation of Population Genetics and Evolution in a Classroom Setting
Prior to 20th century, the primary means by which genetic traits and their inheritance were tracked was through the application of Mendelian genetics via pedigree charts. This, however, invariably constricted research endeavors and relegated the still embryonic field of genetics to the study of individual families within a population. Immeasurable progress was made with the refinement of Darwin's theory of Natural Selection and the application of his theory to the macrocosm of the population. This application of Darwin's theory was pioneered by two scientists, G.H. Hardy and W. Weinberg who independently suggested in 1908 what is now commonly referred to as the Hardy Weinberg equation. As per this schemata, evolution can be as changes in the frequency of alleles in a population of organisms. This interpretation can be exemplified as such: if a and A are alleles for a particular gene locus and each diploid individual has two such loci, then p can be designated as the frequency of the A allele and q as the frequency of the a allele. The equation than incorporates the aforementioned variables and integrates them into the two equations p + q = 1.0 and p2+2pq+q2=1.0. In order to satisfy these two equations a series of five conditions must be met. Those five conditions are as follows:
The breeding population is sufficiently large so as to minimize the effect of chance on changes in allele frequencies
Any mating occurring is entirely random, meaning that no mating preference for a particular phenotype is expressed.
No mutation of the alleles or alteration of the DNA sequence to any extent occurs.
No differential migration or flow of genetic information from alien populations occurs.
No selection. Each genotype has an equal chance or surviving and reproducing.
The preliminary experiment...