[pic] By DAVID D. KIRKPATRICK and DAVID E. SANGER Published: February 13, 2011*
(*Edited for educational purposes)
The Revolution of the Youth
Young Egyptian and activists brainstormed on the use of technology to get around surveillance, complained about torture and traded relevant advice on how to stand up to rubber bullets and organize barricades. They prepared copies of 198 Non-violent Protest Methods, by Gene Sharp, translated into Arabic to circulate among the people during the uprising. Young people connected and coordinated the protests by transmitting messages through the internet. The dramatic 2011 Egyptian revolution saw millions of people of all ages, social backgrounds and religions demand the overthrow of President Hosni Mubarak. On 11 February, Mubarak resigned from office following weeks of determined popular protest and pressure. It is important to understand the causes of this event so that, in places where similar conditions exist, reforms can take place instead of demonstrations. By analyzing the major complaints from the perspective of the Egyptian protesters, it will be clear that legal, political, social and economic problems have existed for a long time.
One-party rule and a continuous state of emergency has been imposed since 1981, when Mubarak came to power. Hosni Mubarak was often compared to an Egyptian pharaoh by the media and by some of critics due to his harsh rule. An emergency law (Law No. 162 of 1958) has been in effect since President Sadat's 1981 assassination. Under the law, police powers are extended, constitutional rights suspended, censorship is legalized, and the government may imprison individuals indefinitely and without reason. The law sharply limits any non-governmental political activity, including street demonstrations, non-approved political organizations, and unregistered financial donations. The Mubarak government has justified this law by claiming that opposition groups like the Muslim...