Speech acts are short sentences that are used in everyday communication. They are actions represented by sentences.
Requesting H to do something.
A request is a directive. It is used when the speaker wants the hearer to do something. It is done in a nice, civil manner. In an utterance, such a speech act can be realized by the way the speaker refers to the hearer. The following utterance is a (Yes-No) interrogative.
(i) Would you like to go to the shop?
The speaker is asking the hearer a direct question that expects to be answered yes or no.
A request can also come in a commanding sense. It causes the hearer to take a certain action. The speaker does not expect any answer from the hearer. The following example illustrates a command.
(ii) Go to the shop.
This is a direct order to which the hearer is not expected to give an answer.
Sometimes a request can be indirect. In this case the speaker asks the hearer to do something in an indirect way. For example;
(iii) Speaker: We are out of bread.
(iv) Hearer: I will go to the shop.
The speaker makes a request and expects the hearer to say something about it.
In some other cases the speaker might request the hearer to do something in form of advice. In this case the speaker acts as though the hearer will suffer in some way if they do not act accordingly. For instance;
(i) Speaker: I wonder what you will eat because we have no bread.
(ii) Hearer: I will run to the shop.
The hearer feels compelled to do something in this case.
In making requests, a speaker tries to find a way of making the hearer feel obliged to execute the necessary action. The hearer has a limited choice of options.
Sometimes the speaker may make a request by just calling the hearer’s name under appropriate circumstances. For example, in a situation where the speaker and the hearer share the same background the speaker might choose to just call the hearer’s name.
(i) Speaker: Jane!
(ii) Hearer: I...