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Phobia & Addiction Essay

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Below is an essay on "Phobia & Addiction" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

Phobia and Addiction
According to Kowalski, R., and Westen, D. (2011), classical conditioning is defined as “a procedure by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response after it is paired with a stimulus that automatically elicits that response the first type of learning to be systematically studied.”   Operant conditioning is defined as “learning that results when an organism associates a response that occurs spontaneously with a particular environmental effect; also called instrumental conditioning.” (Kowalski, R., and Westen, D. (2011)) After being completely confused with the definitions of classical conditioning and operant conditioning in our textbook, I finally came to an understanding of both. “Classical conditioning involves association between an involuntary response and a stimulus, whereas operant conditioning makes it association between a voluntary behavior and a consequence, either good or bad, from that behavior.” (Cherry, 2014) According to Cherry (2014), “Classical conditioning does not have appraisal or rewards for wanted behavior, whereas operant conditioning does. With classical conditioning, the learner is passive and compliant, but with operant conditioning the learner has to be active in the process to be rewarded or punished for the learned behavior.”
According to Kowalski, R., and Westen, D. (2011), “Conditioned emotional responses occur when a formerly neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes an emotional response (either naturally or through prior learning).”   Prior learning can be threw a personal experience or by modeling behavior that was observed. In Coelho, C. M., & Purkis, H. (2009) study states “Reinforcing the importance of vicarious learning, a study with 40 children (25 boys, 15 girls) between 9 and 12 years of age, found a significant positive relationship between the mother’s and the child’s fears and a relationship with the frequency with which the parent usually expressed their fear in front...

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