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Pharmacology is a field of study into the effects of chemical substances on living things.doc Essay

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Pharmacology is a field of study into the effects of chemical substances on living things. This was once a mode for the administration of miscellaneous concoctions in order to achieve health in a patient. Since the dawn of synthetic and organic chemistry, though, pharmacology has relied on the molecular structural specificity of the administered concoctions and their resultant biological actions in order to choose which drugs to use in various pathologies.




Drugs are known to target ion channels, receptors, carrier proteins, enzymes, cellular DNA and the variety of metabolic pathways known in cellular biology. In order for such direct targeting of drugs, molecular biological experimental techniques have had to mature. In order to build up a picture of protein structure, proteins need to be first isolated. Chromotography and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis are used for this. Spectrometric analysis as well as X-ray crystallography are then applied in order to decipher the exact peptide sequence of the protein and inturn develop an idea of the three-dimensional protein structure. mRNAs can then be isolated, reverse transcribed into cDNA so the protein can be cloned using PCR and a cDNA library can then be built. mRNAs can be transferred to an expression vector such as Xenopus Oocytes (as in the case for ion channels) enabling translation thus protein function can be studied.




So through experimental techniques, we are able to discover proteins' functions and create new drugs with the exact conformational structures and study their actions in living organisms. Ion channel activities can be modified. It is known that Lidocaine blocks sodium channels in a use-dependant fashion. We know that Lidocaine enters cells through sodium channels and binds to the channel in its inactive state and blocks them. Benzodiazepines are known to bind to a specific binding site on GABA chloride channels. With the knowledge of cellular activities, we can anticipate the...

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