There is increasing interest in noninvasive ventilation because it is effective and avoids the complications of invasive ventilation. Noninvasive ventilation keeps the airway defense mechanisms, allows the patient to eat and talk and decreases infective complications. Efficacy of this treatment depends mainly on the proper selection of patients. The aim of this work is to review types, when to use and guidelines of noninvasive ventilation.
Animal experiments for artificial respiration began at midsixteenth century led by Andreas Vesalius; however, experiments were immature and crude. Alexander Graham Bell, in 1889 designed and built an artificial respirator for use in distressed newly born infants. In 1950, Dr. Alan Bloxsom created the Bloxsom air lock for use in reviving newborn infants (Donald and Young, 1952). From this time onwards, there is progressive development of iron lung machines, ventilators and, in general, the art of aided ventilation. Aided mechanical respiration can be invasive, bypassing the upper airway through a tracheotomy, an endotracheal tube or a laryngeal mask. Providing respiratory support through a nasal or a face mask is noninvasive ventilation (Baudouin and other members of the British Thoracic Society, BTS, Standards of Care Committee, 2002). The aim of this work is to review noninvasive ventilation, when to use it and how to note the progress of patients put on noninvasive ventilation.
Types of noninvasive ventilation
A pressure difference has to develop, phasically, across the lung for ventilation to occur. Thus creating a negative pressure in the pleural space; or creating a positive pressure within the upper airway can help patients with failing respiration (Corrado and Gorini, 2002).
1- Noninvasive negative pressure ventilation (NPV):
It is aided ventilation by exposing the thoracic cage to negative subatmospheric pressure. This creates a pressure...