During King Charles 1st reign a war broke out between Parliament and the royal army. There were three main reasons for the war: religious, economic and political. The Puritans believed that King Charles preferred Catholics as he had a Catholic wife (Queen Henrietta). Charles believed in THE DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS; he thought he had been chosen by God to rule. Also he disagreed with Parliament over raising taxes, and from 1629 tried to rule without them. In 1640 King Charles tried to rejoin with Parliament to raise money through taxes. He would use the money to fight against Scottish Protestant rebels. Parliament refused so he tried to arrest five of them but failed because they escaped. The inhabitants of London agreed with Parliament so they rioted in their support. Charles fled from London and gathered a voluntary army to fight against Parliament. Neither side won the first major battle at Edgehill in 1642. Thanks to Oliver Cromwell’s new model army, Parliament won the battles at Marston Moor and Naseby (1644-1645). Charles then ran to the Scots who handed him over to Parliament. He escapes and plots to fight again. He went to fight against Parliament again but lost badly. He was tried for treason and found guilty. Charles was then executed in January 1649. His son, Charles invaded in 1651 but lost and went into exile. This battle ended the Civil War. England was ruled by Parliament until they quarrelled. From 1653, Oliver Cromwell ruled as Lord Protector, backed by his army. When he died in 1658, his son Richard was removed from office. By 1660 a new Parliament invited Charles 2nd back from exile.