1. In detail compare and contrast Adams’ and Schmidt’s motor learning theories. (25 points)
• Adams and Schmidt’s motor learning theories both state that motor learning involves recognition and recall. They also believe that motor programming equals response execution. However, Adam’s theory was based on closed loop control and Schmidt’s theory was based on open loop control. In Adam’s theory, recognition is defined as a perpetual trace that controls the response updates during the response. The second part of Adam’s theory is recall which he refers to as memory trace. It is necessary to have memory trace to initiate the response produced feedback.
• In Schmidt’s theory, recall is simply referred to as a recall schema which initiates the response and carries it out. His theory is called recall schema, which initiates the response and carries it out. Schmidt’s theory is an example of open loop control because it controls the response. He believes that recall schema is updated after the response, which is called recognition schema. There is an individual memory representation according to Adam’s trace based recall. According to Schmidt’s schema based recall, there is only one memory representation for similar models.
2. In detail compare and contrast paradigms used to study motor learning and provide possible explanations for the pattern of result. (25 points)
• The main paradigms used to study motor learning are response variability and random vs. block practice. Response variability and random vs. block practice are techniques of motor learning that incorporate variations.
3. Describe the different ways in which one can manipulate KR for memory development and provide possible explanations. (25 points)
4. Describe and explain how imagery and observational practice impact current and future motor performance. (25 points)