The Papadopoulos, Tilki and Taylor Model for Developing Cultural Competence (Figure 1):
Transcultural nursing theory and models are the most appropriate for the 21st century.
Transcultural nursing models are a good guide for nurses to get familiarized with the
cultural structure of the society and in its evaluation (Tortumluoglu,2006). The
Papadopoulos, Tilki & Taylor (1998) model for developing cultural competencies, offer
detailed frame work for the development of culturally competent nursing. The model
(See figure1) consists of four stages:
Cultural Awareness is the first stage in the model which begins with an
examination of personal value base and beliefs. Self awareness contributes one’s
understanding of the nature and construction of cultural identity. Awareness of
cultural background also shapes one’s values and beliefs which in turn influences
one’s health beliefs and practices. Therefore the “cultural awareness” stage comprises
an essential first stage in the process of achieving cultural competence .It is impossible to
become culturally sensitive and ultimately competent, unless one goes through this stage.
The second stage is Cultural Knowledge .It can be attained in a number of ways.
Meaningful contact with people from different ethnic groups can enhance knowledge
about health beliefs and behaviors and increase the understanding of problems they
encounter. This knowledge is needed in order to understand the similarities and
differences of cultural groups as well as the inequalities in health. Cultural knowledge
can be attained from all disciplines such as psychology, sociology, pathology and so on.
Achieving Cultural Sensitivity (third stage) is how the professional view people in their
care. Cultural sensitivity is not being attained unless clients are considered as true or
equal partners and a key element in anti oppressive...