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Mitosis & Meiosis Study Guide Essay

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Name: _____________________________________________ Date: __________________________

Mitosis & Meiosis Study Guide
Vocabulary
Know the definitions of the following words. Words have been categorized according to whether they
go with Mitosis or Meiosis and listed to show comparisons between the 2 processes.
1. Mitosis – The process by which a cell makes an
exact copy of itself (cell division)

2. Meiosis – The process by which sex cells (sperm
and egg) are formed by reducing the number of
chromosomes by half.

3. Asexual Reproduction – The process by which a
single organism produces a new organism identical to
itself; requires only ONE parent.

4. Sexual Reproduction – The process by which a new
organism is formed from the joining of a sperm and
egg cell; requires a MALE and FEMALE.

5. Budding – A form of asexual reproduction in which
a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud.

6. Fertilization – The joining of a sperm and egg cell to
make a new organism.

7. Chromosomes – where genes are stored; found inside the nucleus of a cell
8. Genes – made up of DNA, located on chromosomes, code for physical traits; the
instructions/recipe/code for building a living thing.
9. DNA – makes up chromosomes; segments of DNA code for physical traits (ex. hair color, eye color)
10. Trait – a physical characteristic (eye color/hair color) that an organism can pass on to its offspring
through the genes.

Key Concepts
Be sure to understand the answers to the following questions.
11. In sexual reproduction, what percent of genetic material comes from each parent? In asexual
reproduction, what percent of genetic material comes from the parent?
Sexual = 50% from female parent (mom) & 50% from male parent (dad)
Asexual = 100% from one parent (could be mom OR dad)

12. Describe the daughter cells (number of cells and number of chromosomes) produced through
mitosis as compared to the parent (starting) cell.
There will be 2 daughter cells,...

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