Outline the Marxists view of education (12 marks)
There are 2 main Marxists Althusser, Bowles and Gintis. The First Marxists is Althusser, he used two elements to explain his theory about education. He argued that it is run by the repressive state apparatuses and the ideological state apparatuses. The repressive state apparatus is the rule of the bourgeoisie by forceful threat, for example army/police. The other is the ideological state apparatus is the rule of the bourgeoisie by controlling people’s ideas believes and values. For example through media, religion, family and education.
The next Marxists were Bowles & Gintis. These had 3 main ideas schooling in capitalist, correspondence principle and hidden curriculum and the myth of meritocracy. Bowles & Gintis said education was schooling capitalist. They argued that capitalist requires a work force with the kind of attitude behaviour and personality type suited to their role as alienated and exploited workers willing to accept hard work yet low pay. Students who show independence and creativity tend to get low grades while those who show characteristics link to obedience and discipline tend to get higher grades.
The next idea from Bowles & Gintis was the correspondence and hidden curriculum. They argued that parallels between school and work in a capitalist’s society the correspondence operated through the hidden curriculum. They said school and work are parallel to each other; the school mirrors the workplace through hierarchy without realising to accept exploitation. They argue that all this prepares you for work with middle class being exploited.
The final part of Bowles & Gintis is the myth of meritocracy: the legitimation of class inequality. This means capitalist society is based on inequality. It is always a danger that the poor will feel that this inequality is undeserved and unfair. They will end up rebelling against the system responsible for it. Bowles & Gintis prevent...