The Four Functions of Management
One way we might look at management is to see it as creative problem solving. In order to solve the problem of carrying out the business of the organization, four basic activities, or functions, are necessary.
Planning is the ongoing process of developing the business' mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. Planning includes both the broadest view of the organization (its mission), and the narrowest (a specific tactic for achieving a specific objective).
In many ways, planning is the hardest function of management. It requires constant attention, as conditions surrounding the business, the economy and the world at large will change. It requires input from multiple people, from leaders of the organization to individual workers, on both the administrative and artistic sides of the aisle. Most arts organizations are continually updating a variety of plans which serve the organization, including long-range and strategic plans, program plans, marketing plans and budgets.
Organizing is the process of converting plans into action. Organizing can include creating a list of duties, developing deadlines and timetables for work, assigning tasks, determining and assembling the necessary resources and carrying out the plan. It is the organizing function that most people think about when they think of management. The organizing function is also where the process of supervising others and assigning authority occurs.
In an arts organization, the organizing function might include such activities as hiring staff, recruiting volunteers, marketing, soliciting contributions, writing grants, and facilitating events.
Leading is the act of directing the behavior of all personnel to accomplish the organization's mission and goals. In order for the goals to be achieved, a shared