Leadership and Management Development |
Individual Assignment |
1. An account of the work of a management theorist, appropriately referenced
The study of organisational behaviour has become very essential in organisational world due to its direct link to the productivity of the organisation. Motivation is the key factor that influences employees’ behaviour towards improving productivity. Many theories have been propounded to identify the impact of motivation in organisational environment.
This work below focuses on the needs theory by Clayton P. Alderfer.
Alderfer (1972) used the idea of Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (“ERG”) Theory of motivation which is built on Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory; he reduced Maslow 5 levels of needs to 3 levels.
There are some similarities of ERG Theory to that of Maslow's needs theory, such as:-
Existence needs – desire to satisfy the physiological and safety needs
Relatedness – desire to satisfy the social needs
Growth – esteem and self-actualisation needs
ERG Theory is hierarchical. The Existence needs comes before the Relatedness Needs which in turn have priority over the Growth needs. (Rollinson 2005, Carell et al. 1997, Chell 1993, Schermerhorn 2003)
Apart from the ERG Theory has lesser levels, ERG Theory provides the flexibility on the Maslow theory as below:-
a) Maslow’s theory suggested one will move to the next need upon satisfaction of the lower need, Alderfer acknowledged that more than one needs can be pursued simultaneously, one can move to the next need even the lower need is not fully satisfied. (Huczynski & Buchanan 2007, Carell et al. 1997, Mullins 2002)
b) One can change the order of the needs based on the background and preferences. (Alderfer, 1972)
c) ERG Theory recognised that if higher needs remain unfulfilled, the next lower order need is activated. (Alderfer 1972, Mullins 2002, Rollinson 2005, Huczynski & Buchanan 2007, Bratton...