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This article is about the Muslim head of state. For other meanings of "Caliph", see Caliph (disambiguation).
Caliph of the Faithful
Residence | Medina
Term length | Life tenure |
Inaugural holder | Abu Bakr |
Formation | 8 June 632 |
Final holder | Abdülmecid II |
Abolished | 3 March 1924 |
Succession | Electoral during Rashidun Caliphate, later hereditary
(Succession to Muhammad) |
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The Caliph (Arabic: خليفة ḫalīfah/khalīfah) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. The word derives from the Arabic خليفة Khalīfah (help·info), which means "successor" or "representative". Following Muhammad's death in 632, the early leaders of the Muslim nation were called Khalifat Rasul Allah, the political successors to the messenger of God (referring to Muhammad). Some academics prefer to transliterate the term as Khalīfah. A Calipha is either a female caliph or the wife or widow of a caliph. There was one known instance in history that a calipha ruled a Caliphate: Sitt al-Mulk was regent of the Fatimid Caliphate from 1221 to 1223. Some caliphas, such as Zaynab an-Nafzawiyyah and Al-Khayzuran bint Atta, wielded great influence in the courts of their husbands.
Contents * 1 Succession to Muhammad * 2 Word Usage * 3 History * 3.1 Succession and Recognition * 3.2 Ali's Caliphate and the rise of the Umayyad Dynasty * 3.3 Umayyads * 3.4 Abbasids * 3.5 Fatimids * 3.6 Shadow Caliphate * 3.7 Ottomans * 3.8 Abolition of the institution * 4...