The importance of shapes fitting together in cells and organisms.
In many cells and organisms, the fitting of shapes are very important so that it will able them to carry out their function.
The most demonstrative example of this would be enzymes. There are two types of models concerning enzymes, induced fit which is the process of the enzyme moulding around the substrate and there is the lock and key theory which consists that the substrate to be complementary to the enzyme to form an enzyme-substrate complex. When people have lactose intolerance, it means that the lactase enzyme has changed shape during mutation therefore it is unable to synthesise the substrate therefore it will not be digested correctly.
There can also be competitive inhibitors in which they bind to the allosteric site of the enzyme meaning that the substrate cannot bind to the enzyme. If the competitive inhibitor was not the same shape then the inhibitor would not work. Competitive inhibitors are often used in medicine to prevent synapses being passed on. Another example would be in vaccines where they inject dormant cells into the body for your antibodies to produce an active site that would be able to destroy that antigen. This shape would then be memorised by memory cells which then during another infection, the memory cells will activate the correct antibodies which then will be able to bind the antibody and get rid of it quicker without showing any symptoms. Another way in which our body may fight against diseases is by engulfing the harmful antigen and by using the MCR2 active site by binding to it and releasing enzymes inside the vesicle which will destroy the antigen and it will be taken out of the body through exocytosis.
Shapes are very important in all sorts of processes such as osmosis which is the diffusion of water molecules through a partially permeable membrane. It is important as the specific shape of molecules allows some molecules to pass that are smaller and...