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The connection between salt and hypertension


The following question was investigated: “Does decreasing salt intake help with hypertension?”   Using the PICO (t) method described in class the initial question was turned into: patient/problem, intervention, comparison and outcome.   The problem is hypertension, the intervention is decreasing salt intake, the comparison is not changing your salt intake and the wanted outcome is an improvement in hypertension.   To identify key search terms the CINAHL Plus with full text database was used. The terms salt and hypertension were identified and used for a literature search of the CINAHL database.
He, Campbell, & MacGregor (2012) found hypertension is the leading cause of death worldwide causing 14% of premature deaths globally. He et al., (2012) also states studies in humans have shown that salt intake is directly related to blood pressure (BP), and communities with a higher salt intake have a higher mean population BP.   This article goes on to find a direct correlation between high blood pressure and salt in chimpanzees. On humans He et al.   reviewed a randomized double blind cross study with 20 individuals where their salt intake was gradually decreased over three months. Their systolic and diastolic went down by about 15 points by the end of the testing. Aaron & Sanders (2013) based its findings off of 52 RCT’s that were done involving salt intake and how it affects high blood pressure.   They concluded the relationship between dietary salt intake and health has been considered strong enough to make predictions regarding heart health and mortality if worldwide reduction were to occur. The final article was a literature review that assessed the reduction of salt intake in normotensive/hypertensive patients. According to Patience (2013) literature was reviewed on 31 trials where individuals had to eat a reduced salt diet for four weeks. In people with hypertension, the systolic and diastolic were reduced by 5...

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