Grammar Translation Method
Emphasizes the teaching of the second language grammar. Its principal practice techniques is translation from and into the target language.
The original motivation for this method was reformist. The grammar-translation method was an attempt to adapt the traditional scholastic approach among individual learners in the eighteen century i.e. to acquire a reading knowledge to the interpretation of texts with the use of a dictionary to the circumstances and requirements of school. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, grammar translation was attacked as a ‘cold and lifeless’ approach to language teaching.
GT was used for reading and appreciating foreign language literature. GT lays little emphasis on speaking or listening to the second language, it is mainly a book oriented method for learning the grammar of language. It was thought that the study of the grammar would make students more aware of the grammar of their own language and would help the students grow intellectually.
The textbook presents short chapters of lessons containing a few grammatical points of rules illustrated by examples, technical terms are not avoided. The learner has to memorise rules, paradigms, vocabulary, and lists examples of prepositions. Elaborate grammatical explanations and illustrations are followed by practice in the writing of paradigms, in the applying of rules in the construction of sentences, and in the translation of passages of prose from the native to the foreign language. Some exercises practice translation into the first language. As the learner progresses, he advanced from translating isolated sentences to translating passages.
The target language is primarily viewed as a system of rules to be related to the rules and meanings of the first language. Language learning is implicitly seen as an intellectual activity involving rule learning by means of massive, translation practice. Like...