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Genetics, Brain Structure, and Behavior: Future Directions Essay

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Genetics, Brain Structure, and Behavior: Future Directions

PSY/340

Stephanie M. Fernandez, Ph.D.

Genetics, Brain Structure, and Behavior: Future Directions
Bipolar disorder, which is also known as manic-depression, is viewed as a mental disorder that causes severe mood swings, altering energy levels, up and down activity, and at times the inability to perform daily tasks. The various signs of bipolar disorder can be severe, but differ from the usual ups and downs that one can experience at different times throughout their life. For those suffering from bipolar, they have seemed to develop symptoms of the disorder mainly during their teenage years or into early adulthood.
According to the DSM-IV, there are four basic types of bipolar disorder, these types of bipolar disorder are:
  * Bipolar I Disorder - This is mainly characterized by manic episodes that last a minimum of seven days, or by manic symptoms, which are severe enough for an individual to immediately seek medical care. Furthermore, the individual, often, has depressive periods that usually last a minimum of two weeks. The mania or depression must bring major altercations to the individual’s normal route of behavior.  
  * Bipolar II Disorder – This is usually characterized with a track record of depressive episodes moving to and from hypo-manic episodes, however, there are no over the top manic or mixed episodes.
  * Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (BP-NOS) – This is mostly characterized with symptoms of the disorder that do not fall under the DSM guidelines for bipolar I or II. With BP-NOS, the individual may not meet DSM criteria for length or quantity of symptoms in order to be diagnosed with bipolar I or II. Nonetheless, there are signs that the individual’s range of behavior has disruption.
  * Cyclothymic Disorder, or Cyclothymia – This is a bland form of bipolar disorder, which an individual experiences hypomania that swings back and forth with little depression,...

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