Foundations of Psychology Essay

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Running head: FOUNDATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY








Foundations of Psychology
Beverley Austin
University of Phoenix
General Psychology
PSY300
Betsy Ferronato
November 07, 2011


Foundations of Psychology
Introduction
The purpose of this essay is to identify the major schools of thought in psychology, which are “the psychodynamic, behaviorist, cognitive, and evolutionary perspectives” (Kowalski & Westen, 2009, p. 12) and examine their major underlying assumptions. Additionally, to identify the primary biological foundations of psychology linked to behavior.
Psychodynamic
The Psychodynamic perspective was developed by Sigmund Freud and is based upon three major points. “First, people’s actions are determined by the way thoughts, feelings, and wishes are connected in their minds. Second, many of these mental events occur outside of conscious awareness. And third, these mental processes may conflict with one another, leading to compromises among competing motives. Thus, people are unlikely to know precisely the chain of psychological events that leads to their conscious thoughts, intentions, feelings, or behaviors.” (Kowalski & Westen, 2009, p. 12)
Some of the major assumptions of the Psychodynamic perspective are:
“* Our behaviour and feelings are powerfully affected by unconscious motives.
* Our behaviour and feelings as adults (including psychological problems) are rooted in our childhood experiences.
* All behaviour has a cause (usually unconscious), even slips of the tongue. Therefore all behaviour is determined.
* Personality is made up of three parts (i.e. tripartite). The id, ego and super-ego.
* Behaviour is motivated by two instinctual drives: Eros (the sex drive & life instinct) and Thanatos (the aggressive drive & death instinct). Both these drives come from the “id”.
* Parts of the unconscious mind (the id and superego) are in constant conflict with the conscious part of the mind (the ego).
* Personality is shaped as the drives...

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