Endometrioma is a type of cyst formed when endometrial tissue (the mucous membrane that makes up the inner layer of the uterine wall) grows in the ovaries. It affects women during the reproductive years and may cause chronic pelvic pain associated with menstruation. It is a condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the uterus. It is often confined to the pelvis involving the ovary, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)
Presumed endometriomas were classified into three types based on size, cyst contents, ease of removal of the capsule, adhesions of the cyst to other structures and location of superficial endometrial implants relative to the cyst wall. After clinical laparoscopic classification, the cysts were evaluated histologically without knowledge of the clinical assessment. Histologically small (< 2 cm), superficial ovarian cysts were always endometriomas, and the cyst wall was very difficult to remove (type I). Large cysts with easily removed walls were usually luteal cysts (type II). Large cysts with walls adherent in multiple areas adjacent to superficial endometriosis were generally endometriomas but some also had histologic characteristics of functional (luteal or follicular) cysts (types IIIa and IIIb). These findings led to the conclusion that superficial ovarian endometriosis is similar to endometriosis in extra-ovarian sites in that the formation of superficial cysts is limited in size by fibrosis and scarring. In contrast, large endometriomas may develop as a result of secondary involvement of functional ovarian cysts by the endometriotic process.(PublicMed.com)
About 30 percent to 40 percent of women with endometriosis are infertile, making it one of the top three causes of female infertility. Some women don’t find out that they have endometriosis until they have trouble getting pregnant. Some studies suggest that the condition may change...