Explain the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cosmological Argument for Proving God Exists. (25)
The Cosmological argument is an argument put forward by the Christian Philosopher St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) in an attempt to prove God’s existence. However, it is important to take into account that Aquinas already had a strong belief in God when putting this theory forward in his Summa Theologiae, meaning that instead of trying to prove God’s existence, he was more trying to solidify his already established faith based on reason through looking at the cause of the Universe which Aquinas claims must be God.
In Summa Theolgiae, Aquinas attempts to logically prove God’s existence in his ‘Five Ways’ though the first three are the ones which are predominantly sited when referring to the argument. The first of these give ways make similar points based on the idea that infinite regression is not possible; there must have been one thing that started off everything that happened. Aquinas argues that this must be God. The first way is an argument for an ‘Unmoved Mover’. Here, Aquinas claims that everything in the world is in a constant state of change or ‘motion.’ He goes on to argue that something cannot be both potentially and actually the same thing; a cup of boiling tea could not be both hot and potentially hot, though it could be potentially cold and actually hot. By this logic, everything which is ‘in a state of movement’ must have been put into this state by a different object. Because of Aquinas’ rejection of the possibility of infinite regression, this means that there must have been a ‘first mover’ who is ‘put into motion by no other.’ This is, by Aquinas’ logic.
The second way makes a very similar point and is an argument for an ‘Uncaused Cause.’ Aquinas starts off by stating that nothing can be an efficient cause of itself; everything is caused by something else. The efficient causes of a thing follow in order meaning that there was a first cause which caused a...