S.No. TOPIC PAGE NO.
1. Defining Expert Systems 1
2. Historical Background 2
3. Characteristics of an Expert System 2
4. Applications of an Expert System 3
5. Examples of an Expert System 4-5
6. Expert System Architecture 6-9
7. Need for an Expert System 9-10
8. Benefits 10-11
DEFINING EXPERT SYSTEMS:
Where human expertise is needed to solve problems, expert systems are likely candidates to solve those problems. An Expert System is a set of programs that manipulate encoded knowledge to solve problems in a specialized domain that normally require human expertise. Encoded knowledge is used in inferencing or reasoning process. The growth of expert systems is expected to continue for several years. With the continuing growth, many new and exciting applications will emerge. An expert system operates as an interactive system that responds to questions, asks for clariﬁcation, makes recommendations, and generally aids the decision-making process. Expert systems provide expert advice and guidance in a wide variety of activities, from computer diagnosis to delicate medical surgery. A general deﬁnition that is representative of the intended functions of expert systems is:
An expert system is an interactive computer-based decision tool that uses both facts and heuristics to solve difficult decision problems based on knowledge acquired from an expert.
The best application candidates for expert systems are those dealing with expert heuristics for solving problems. Conventional computer programs are based on factual
knowledge, an indisputable strength of computers. Humans, by contrast, solve problems on the basis of a mixture of factual and heuristic knowledge. Heuristic knowledge, composed of intuition, judgment, and logical inferences, is an indisputable strength of humans. Successful expert systems will be those that combine facts and heuristics and thus merge human knowledge with computer power in solving problems. To be effective, an expert...