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Es Can- Didates to Maximize Votes in Essay

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Below is an essay on "Es Can- Didates to Maximize Votes in" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

754 The American Political Science Review Vol. 76
implies. Many of the propositions of social sci-
ence involve an interplay between permanent
psychological characteristics of humans and in-
stitutional structures. This feature implies some
degree of permanence for the subject and predi-
cate classes of generalizations in social science.
For example, the law of demand in economics
that, with appropriate qualifications, demand
curves do not slope upward-is mainly psycho-
logical in character and is indeed a better formu-
lated and more thoroughly verified law of
behavior than any to be found in the science of
psychology itself. Even when the psychological
component is smaller and the institutional compo-
nent is larger than in the law of demand, as is
typical in political science, lasting generalization is
still possible because many institutions (e.g.,
voting and decisions by forming coalitions) are,
when abstractly described, at least as old as writ-
ten history.
It should be the case, therefore, that political
science, like any other science, has a history, even
if it has not heretofore been chronicled. My inten-
tion in this essay is to demonstrate that a history
does exist, and my vehicle is a particular series of
reformulations called Duverger's law. I am not
undertaking this demonstration out of chauvin-
ism, merely to claim for students of politics t982 The Two-party System and Duverger's Law 755
proposed or adopted for legislative elections in
which large numbers of people were expected to
vote. By "large numbers" I mean an electorate of
approximately 5 percent of the population, which
in an era of primitive medicine and poor diet was
perhaps 25 to 33 percent of the adult males. Such
electorates were constituted in America in the
eighteenth century and in Western Europe in the
late nineteenth century. Once these large elec-
torates existed, there also existed a motive for...

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