The biosphere and ecosystem are self-sustaining. Nature maintains a balance in land, water, air and all the living organisms in the world. Any imbalance therein causes a chain reaction. Any amount of any kind of imbalance in the biosphere is called environmental pollution. Today air is becoming foul, waters are no longer clean and forests are being cut down. If this continues, air and water would become unfit for the use of all living beings.
Due to large scale industrial and human settlement effluents, many rivers have turned murky. The large scale industrial wastes and oil released in the seas have started killing marine life. There is no doubt that modern technological development has been the main instrument in polluting our air, oceans and rivers, etc.
The main causes of air pollution are: combustion, manufacturing processes, agricultural activities, use of solvents, and nuclear energy programs. Automobiles, trains, aircrafts and other forms of transport are responsible for polluting the air with hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxide and other oxygen products.
Man uses large volumes of agricultural and industrial materials, whose waste products are dumped in the seas and oceans. Oceans and seas cover two-thirds of the earth’s surface and their pollution has very harmful effects on plants and animals.
Release of industrial wastes into rivers creates havoc. It is estimated that more than 5,000 tons of mercury enters the ocean per year as a result of dumping of wastes into rivers. Mercury concentration increases in fish, which may result in poisoning of the people and domestic animals, eating such fish. Fish from many lakes and seas in American countries have been declared unsafe to eat. Many people have suffered neurological disorders by eating such polluted fish. Lead is another pollutant of seas and oceans. Normal weathering processes and industrial discharges are the main source of its entry into the seas....