Psychology assignment 1 of 1
Cognitive Psychology, research report
Does learning method effect our ability to store information in our short and long – term memory?
Cognition literally means “knowing” psychologists from this approach study cognition which is the mental act or process by which knowledge is acquired.
As humans we acquire knowledge through learning and experience, and we store our knowledge by way of memory.
“Memory is the means by which we draw on our past experiences in order to use this information in the present” (Sternberg, 1999)
Therfore we learn and then we store information for future use. How does the past experience get into our memory in the first place? Atkinson and shiffrin (1968) were some of the first psychologists to attempt to answer this question with their multi – store model of memory. They suggested that memory is made up of a series of stores.
The multi store model (Atkinson and shiffrin 1968) describes memory as information flowing through a system. Where the information is detected initially by the senses and then enters the sensory memory.
Below is an example of what Atkinson and Shiffrin first model looked like
Information is detected by the sense organs from the environment and enters the sensory memory. If attention is paid to the input or the information that is being received, only then does it enter the short term memory (STM). Information from the STM is transferred to the long-term memory only if that information is rehearsed. If rehearsal does not occur, then information is forgotten.
Our short term memory has three main aspects, it has a limited capacity of 7 +/- 2 items, the evidence for this comes from Miller (1956) magic number 7. Miller thought that short term memory could hold between 5 and 9 items as it only had a certain number of slots.
The time in which this information can be retained or the duration of our STM, is limited and information can be lost easily by...