NOMADAS.4 | REVISTA CRITICA DE CIENCIAS SOCIALES Y JURIDICAS | ISSN 1578-6730 |
Four Main Theories of Development:
Modernization, Dependency, Word-System, and Globalization |
[Giovanni E. Reyes] (*) |
THEORY OF MODERNIZATION
THEORY OF DEPENDENCY
THEORY OF WORLD-SYSTEMS
THEORY OF GLOBALIZATION
A MODO DE COLOFON
The main objective of this document is to synthesize the main aspects of the four major theories of development: modernization, dependency, world-systems and globalization. These are the principal theoretical explanations to interpret development efforts carried out especially in the developing countries. These theoretical perspectives allow us not only to clarify concepts, to set them in economic and social perspectives, but also to identify recommendations in terms of social policies.
For the purposes of this paper, the term development is understood as a social condition within a nation, in which the authentic needs of its population are satisfied by the rational and sustainable use of natural resources and systems. This utilization of natural resources is based on a technology, which respects the cultural features of the population of a given country. This general definition of development includes the specification that social groups have access to organizations, basic services such as education, housing, health services, and nutrition, and above all else, that their cultures and traditions are respected within the social framework of a particular country.
In economic terms, the aforementioned definition indicates that for the population of a country, there are employment opportunities, satisfaction -at least- of basic needs, and the achievement of a positive rate of distribution and redistribution of national wealth. In a political sense this definition emphasizes that governmental systems have legitimacy not only in terms of the law, but...