1. Difference between Sunni and Shi’a Muslims
The division between Sunni and Shi’a Muslims is the largest and oldest in the history of Islam. Each group had different beliefs of who should continue on as leader after the death of the prophet Muhammad in the early 7th century.
Sunni Muslims, the larger group of the two Muslims believe Abu Bakr, a close companion of the prophet which was seen as a successful decision by the community for political but not spiritual terms.
Shi’a Muslims, the smaller group, believed that the Prophet's son-in-law and cousin, Ali, should be Caliph (leader). They understood that the Prophet had appointed him in both political and spiritual terms. However, in the end Abu Bakr was appointed First Caliph.
2. History of Afghanistan in 19th and early 20th century since 1950s
1953 Mohammed Daoud Khan, the king's (Amanullah Khan)cousin and brother-in-law became prime minister.
Daoud sought a closer relationship with the Soviet Union and a more distant one towards Pakistan.
1963 disputes with Pakistan led to an economic crisis and he was asked to resign.
1963 until 1973, Zahir Shah (former president 1946) took a more active role.
Zahir Shah allows the first elections in his kingdom of Afghanistan
A military coup deposes Zahir Shah and brings to an end the hereditary monarchy in Afghanistan
Amid charges of corruption and malfeasance against the royal family and poor economic conditions created by the severe 1971–72 drought, former Prime Minister Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan seized power in a non-violent coup on July 17, 1973, while Zahir Shah was receiving treatment for eye problems and therapy for lumbago in Italy.
Communist measures in Afghanistan provoke a Muslim jihad and the murder of more than 100 Russians in Herat
Soviet troops invade Afghanistan to suppress anti-communist anarchy
The Saudi fundamentalist Osama bin Laden joins the mujaheddin in their fight against the Soviet...