Concentration of Sulphuric Acid Essay

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Medical Chemistry and Dental Materials 2005/2006

Practical Lesson No 4
TITRATIONS

Reagents:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

NaOH standard solution
H2SO4
Phenolphthalein
Na2S2O3 standard solution
Starch solution
Solutio Lugoli

0.1 mol/l
solution of unknown concentration
0.1 mol/l
6 g/l
13 g I2 in KI 25 g/l

Theory of titrations
In general, chemistry often analyses unknown samples to answer two questions: what
substances are present and what is their amount. There are therefore two parts of analytical
chemistry: the qualitative and the quantitative analysis. As analytical methods for inorganic
substances differ from those for the organic ones, there are two kinds of analytical chemistry:
the inorganic and the organic analytical chemistry.
In this lesson we present some examples of the quantitative analysis of inorganic substances.
An important method for determination of the amount of a particular substance is based on
measuring volumes of reactant solutions. The method is called a titration, and can be defined
as a procedure for determining the amount of substance A by adding a carefully
measured volume of a solution with known concentration of substance B until the
reaction of substance A with the substance B is just complete. To make the course of the
reaction visible, it is necessary to add another substance called an indicator. An indicator is a
substance that undergoes a colour change when the reaction approaches completion, i.e. at the
equivalence point.
The titration analysis can be based on various sorts of chemical reactions, from which we give
three examples here:
A. Neutralisation reaction
When an acid is mixed with an alkali (base), neutralisation reaction occurs, e.g.:
HCl + NaOH ⎯→ NaCl + H2O
In ionic terms:
H+ + OH− ⎯→ H2O
An acid-base titration is a special kind of titration, used for measuring the amount of acid (or
base) in a solution by determining the volume of base (or acid) of known concentration...

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