Coastal Management Report
Mount Maunganui to Papamoa, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand
Throughout the world, coastal areas are defined as the transitional space where land and sea meet. Coastal areas are highly diverse, both in form and function, they are extremely dynamic and do not abide by strict spatial boundaries (Scialabba, 1998).
A distinction has been made to classify the differences between a ‘coastal area’ and a ‘coastal zone’. The expression ‘coastal zone’ generally refers to a geographic area and its contribution to enabling legislation of coastal management, while a ‘coastal area’ refers to the broad geographic area along the coast, which has yet to be defined under any management demands (Scialabba, 1998).
The desirable characteristics of coastal zones, be it biophysical or climatic, have encouraged human settlement in coastal zones dating back to early prehistoric times (Scialabba, 1998). They provide a variety of environmental goods and services, as well as presenting a dynamic nature, resulting in the transfer of energy and living organisms between land and sea systems, primarily influenced by driving forces, such as weather, climate and changes in sea level and tides (Scialabba, 1998).
Published by the 1994 Distribution of Population in Relation to the Distance from the Nearest Coastline, of the world’s population, 20.6% live within 30 km of the coast, while 37% live within 100 km (Scialabba, 1998, Gommes et al., 1997). It is predicted that the world’s coastal human population within the next 20 to 30 years will rise to almost double (Scialabba, 1998).
New Zealand has a uniquely diverse coastline, with no location being more than 130 km from the ocean. The coastline itself is a truly finite natural resource, conquered by coastal ecosystems and natural habitats, all being highly sensitive to the effects of human activities and influences (Meister & Rosier, 1992).
Within New Zealand, the...